May 30, 1996, Prepublication Copy
Subject to Editorial Correction


Cryptography's Role in Securing

the Information Society


The NRC Committee to Study

National Cryptography Policy

Kenneth W. Dam, Chair, is the Max Pam Professor of American and Foreign Law at the University of Chicago Law School. He is also Of Counsel to the law firm of Kirkland & Ellis. Mr. Dam received his bachelor's degree from the University of Kansas and completed his graduate work at the University of Chicago Law School. During the period from 1985 to 1992, he held the post of corporate vice president for law and external relations at IBM. Mr. Dam served as deputy secretary of state (1982-1985), and as provost of the University of Chicago (1980-1982). Mr. Dam currently serves on the board of Alcoa, on the advisory board of BMW of North America, and on the boards of a number of nonprofit institutions. He is also co-chairman (with Senator Sam Nunn) of the Aspen Strategy Group, a member of the international steering committee of the Bilderberg Group, and chairman of the Advisory Board of the Center for German and American Studies at Georgetown University. He has also written books on the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the international monetary system, U.S. economic policy, and the development of oil resources, as well as many articles on economic policy and antitrust law.

W.Y. Smith, Vice Chair, is president emeritus and was trustee of the Institute for Defense Analyses, and was past president from 1984 to 1991. Prior to that he was a Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars at the Smithsonian Institution, 1983 to 1984. His military posts include deputy commander in chief of the European Command in Germany, 1981 to 1983; chief of staff of SHAPE, Belgium, 1979 to 1981; assistant to the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1975 to 1979; and director of Policy Plans and National Security Affairs at the Office of the Assistant Secretary for International Security Affairs. He has a BS from the U.S. Military Academy, 1948, and an MPA and PhD from Harvard University, 1961. He is a member of the executive committee of the National Security Archives Board of Directors and has a Distinguished Service Medal from the Air Force, among other awards.

Lee Bollinger has been provost of Dartmouth College since July 1994. Prior to this, he was a professor at Michigan Law School from 1979 and served as dean from 1987 to 1994; in 1983 he was visiting associate at Clare Hall, Cambridge University. Mr. Bollinger clerked for Supreme Court Chief Justice Warren E. Burger in 1972 and 1973. Mr. Bollinger has a BS from the University of Oregon, Phi Beta Kappa, 1968, and a JD from Columbia Law School. His books include Images of a Free Press; The Tolerant Society: Freedom of Speech and Extremist Speech in America; and Contract Law in Modern Society. He has published numerous articles on freedom of the press and free speech, including articles on "The First Amendment and National Security" and "The First Amendment and New Communications Technologies." He was co-author of the NRC publication "Constitutional Issues in Regulating Televised Presentations of Violence" in 1982.

Ann Caracristi was appointed a member of President Clinton's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board in September 1993. She was deputy director of the National Security Agency from January 1980 to August 1992, where she was responsible for agency operations and for NSA policies on recruiting, training, and assigning personnel. Ms. Caracristi holds a BA from Russell Sage College and is a graduate of the Federal Executive Institute. She has received the Department of Defense Distinguished Civilian Service Award, the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal, and the United States National Security Award. Currently she is a consultant to the NSA Scientific Advisory Board and a member of the Board of Visitors of the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. She served as a member of the Chief of Naval Operations Executive Panel from October 1982 to September 1991. She was a two-term president of the Association of Former Intelligence Officers from 1989 to 1991. Most recently she chaired a Director of Central Intelligence Task Force on Intelligence Community Training.

Benjamin Civiletti has been in private law practice in Baltimore and Washington, D.C., since 1981. Prior to that he was U.S. attorney general from 1979 to 1981, deputy U.S. attorney general from 1978 to 1979, and assistant attorney general for the Criminal Division of the Department of Justice, 1977 and 1978. He has an AB from Johns Hopkins University, 1957, and an LLB from Columbia University and the University of Maryland, 1961. He is chairman of the Board of Directors of Maryland Healthcorp, a director of MNC Financial Corporation and the Afro-American Publishing Company, a trustee of Johns Hopkins University, chairman of Maryland Legal Services Corporation, chairman of the Governors Task Force for Funding of Public Education, and a member of the board of directors of the Institute Against Violence and Prejudice.

Colin Crook is chair of the Corporate Technology Committee for Citicorp. As senior technology officer he has governance and oversight responsibility for technology at Citicorp, including operational management of the global information network. Mr. Crook is a graduate of the United Kingdom's Liverpool Polytechnic, where he earned his degrees (electrical engineering) while working as a computer designer for the Plessey Company. Mr. Crook held various positions in top management for the Motorola Corporation in the United States and Europe, as well as positions with Rank Precision Industries, Zynar, Ltd., and British Telecom. He also was senior vice president with Data General (USA). Mr. Crook has been a key speaker at international industry conferences, published in scholarly and professional journals, and been the subject of numerous interviews. He is a member of the Association for Computing Machinery, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the Institution of Electrical Engineers (United Kingdom). In 1981, Mr. Crook was elected to the United Kingdom's prestigious Royal Academy of Engineering, the youngest person to be so honored.

Samuel H. Fuller is currently vice president, research and architecture, at Digital Equipment Corporation. Prior to joining Digital in 1978, Dr. Fuller was an associate professor of computer science and electrical engineering at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). While at CMU he was involved in the performance evaluation and design of several experimental multiprocessor computer systems. His field of interest includes computer science and electrical engineering. Dr. Fuller received his BS from the University of Michigan (1968) and his MS (1969) and PhD (1972) in electrical engineering and computer science from Stanford University. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and Association for Computing Machinery. Dr. Fuller has been a member of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board since 1986 and served on the steering committee for the Competitiveness Colloquium Follow-up Workshop on Systems Integration (1989-1991).

Leslie H. Gelb is president of the Council on Foreign Relations. Previously, he was a featured columnist in the New York Times (January 1991 to June 1993). He received his BA degree (1959) from Tufts University and his MA and PhD degrees (1961 and 1964, respectively) from Harvard University. Dr. Gelb was executive assistant to U.S. Senator Jacob K. Javits (1966 to 1967) and director for policy planning and arms control, International Security Affairs, Department of Defense (1967-1969), where he received the Distinguished Service Award. In 1977, Dr. Gelb was appointed assistant secretary of state, where he served as director of the Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs. He was the national security correspondent for the New York Times from 1981 to 1986, and in 1985 was awarded a Pulitzer Prize in explanatory journalism. Dr. Gelb is a trustee of Tufts University and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; he is also a board member of the Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs, the Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government, Joan Shorenstein Barone Center; and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the International Institute for Strategic Studies. He has co-authored several books on foreign policy and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Ronald Graham is director of information sciences at AT&T Bell Laboratories, which he joined in 1988, and has also been a professor at Rutgers University since 1987. Concurrently, he has been the Regents' Professor of Mathematics at the University of California, Los Angeles, and a visiting professor in computer science at Stanford University and Princeton University. He was the Fairchild Distinguished Scholar at CIT in 1982. Dr. Graham's research is in combinatorics, graph theory, algorithms, number theory, and combinatorial geometry. He has a BS from the University of Alaska, 1958, and an MA and PhD from the University of California, Berkeley, 1962. Dr. Graham was awarded the Polya Prize in combinatorics in 1972. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and of the Mathematical Association of America, and he is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Martin Hellman has been a professor of electrical engineering at Stanford University since 1971. Previously, he was an assistant professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1969 to 1971, and a staff member at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center from 1968 to 1969. Dr. Hellman's specialties are information and communication theory, cryptography and data security, and international security. His BE is from New York University and his MS and PhD in electrical engineering are from Stanford University. He is a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics.

Ambassador Julius Katz is president of Hills & Company, an international consulting firm that provides clients with strategic advice and risk analysis on foreign trade and investment. He was deputy U.S. trade representative from 1989 to 1993 and was the U.S chief negotiator for the North American Free Trade Agreement. He also had senior management responsibility for bilateral and regional negotiations with Europe and the Western Hemisphere, as well as for the Uruguay round of multilateral trade negotiations. Prior to that, Ambassador Katz was chairman of the Government Research Corporation in Washington (1987-1989) and worked in financial services as chairman of Donaldson, Lufkin, & Jenrette Futures Inc. He had a 30-year career at the Department of State, where he held the position of assistant secretary of state for economic and business affairs. While at the State Department, he led numerous U.S. delegations in trade, commodity, and transport negotiations.

Peter G. Neumann is principal scientist in the Computer Science Laboratory at SRI, where he has worked since 1971. His projects have involved computer systems security, high assurance, human safety, and reliability. He was a member of the Air Force Studies Board database security study and the 1989 to 1990 National Research Council's System Security Study Committee that produced the report Computers at Risk. He also served on an expert panel on civil and constitutional rights for the U.S. House Judiciary Committee Subcommittee. Dr. Neumann received his AB, SM, and PhD from Harvard University in 1954, 1955, and 1961, respectively. In 1960 he received a Dr. rerum naturarum from the Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt, Germany, where he was a Fulbright scholar for 2 years. Since 1976 he has been editor of SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes for the Association for Computing Machinery and is chairman of the ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy. Dr. Neumann was awarded an ACM Outstanding Contribution Award in 1992 and the first SRI Exceptional Performance Award for Leadership in Community Service, also in 1992. He is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and a member at large of the section committee of the Section on Information, Computing, and Communication for the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Raymond Ozzie is president of Iris Associates, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lotus Development Corporation located approximately 45 miles northwest of Boston in Westford, Massachusetts. Iris Associates was founded by Mr. Ozzie in 1984 to develop a product now known as Lotus Notes. Previously, Mr. Ozzie was employed by Lotus Development Corporation and was the lead developer of Lotus' Symphony product. Prior to his time at Lotus, he was employed by Software Arts, the developer of the VisiCalc spreadsheet product. At Software Arts, Mr. Ozzie managed the group responsible for porting VisiCalc and another product, TK!Solver, to various PC platforms, including the initial IBM personal computer. Earlier, Mr. Ozzie was employed by the Commercial Systems Division of Data General Corporation, where he was instrumental in the development of a distributed LAN operating system. Mr. Ozzie received his degree in computer science in 1978 from the University of Illinois in Champaign-Urbana, where he did research in distributed computing and was a systems programmer for PLATO, a pioneering distributed computer-based education and collaboration system connecting students and researchers at hundreds of locations worldwide.

Edward Schmults was senior vice president for external relations and general counsel for GTE Corporation from 1984 to 1994. Previously he served as a deputy attorney general at the Justice Department from 1981 to 1984, deputy counsel to the President from 1975 to 1976, and undersecretary at the Treasury Department from 1974 to 1975. He sits on the board of directors of the Germany Fund and the Future Germany Fund and is chairman of the board of trustees of the Refugee Policy Group. He served with the U.S. Marine Corps from 1953 to 1955. Mr. Schmults has a BS from Yale University and a JD from Harvard University, 1958.

Elliot M. Stone has been executive director of the Massachusetts Health Data Consortium since it was established in 1978 as a private, nonprofit corporation and a politically neutral setting for the collection and analysis of the state's large health care databases. The consortium publishes annual reports to a broad constituency of health care organizations and business coalitions. Previously, Mr. Stone served as director of the state's Center for Health Statistics in the Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Mr. Stone has been an advisor to the Agency for Health Care Policy & Research, the National Center for Healthcare Statistics, the Health Care Financing Administration, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Mr. Stone is a board member of the Massachusetts Peer Review Organization and chairman of its Data Committee. He is an active member of the National Association of Health Data Organizations and the Association for Health Services Research. Mr. Stone received his bachelor's and master's degrees at Boston University. He was a member of the Institute of Medicine study Health Data in the Information Age: Use, Disclosure, and Privacy.

Willis Ware is associate department head of the Computer Sciences Department, the RAND Corporation. Dr. Ware was a member of a U.S. delegation of scientists sent to the USSR to discuss computers and related matters. He was the first chairman of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies and was appointed chairman of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Automated Personal Data Systems of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Dr. Ware was appointed to the Privacy Protection Study Commission and served as both a member and vice-chairman. He was chosen as co-recipient of DPMA's Computer Sciences Man of the Year and is listed in Who's Who in Engineering and American Men and Women of Science as well as other publications. His research has been published in several journals. Dr. Ware received his BS in electrical engineering from the University of Pennsylvania, an SM in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a PhD in electrical engineering from Princeton University. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1985.

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